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1. In vitro non-imaging tracer studies: this is when a tracer is introduced into the patient and then tissue / fluid samples taken from the patient and the radioactivity measured from these. No images are produced.

2. In vitro radioimmunoassay: for hormones, drugs, etc.

3. Radionuclide imaging: in which a radiopharmaceutical is introduced into the patient and then a gamma camera images the radioactivity leaving the patient (e.g. bone scans).

4. Theraputic radiopharmaceuticals.


1. Bushberg, J. T. (2012). The essential physics of medical imaging. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Find it at Amazon
2. Heggie, J. C., Liddell, N. A., & Maher, K. P. (1997). Applied imaging technology. Melbourne: St. Vincents Hospital.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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