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RAYNAUD PHENOMENON-INVESTIGATION & MANAGEMENT

Rheumatology

RAYNAUD PHENOMENON-INVESTIGATION & MANAGEMENT

1. An easy test to distinguish primary from secondary Raynaud's is nailfold capillaroscopy.

2. Avoid the cold and drugs that cause vasoconstriction.

3. Smoking/tobacco use is contraindicated.

4. Treatment includes: calcium channel blockers, alpha-blockers, sildenafil, and nitroglycerin transdermal.

5. Localized digital sympathectomy - for patients who have failed medical treatment & continue to experience ischemia/necrosis.


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REFERENCES

1. Wilkinson, I. (2017). Oxford handbook of clinical medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2. Hannaman, R. A., Bullock, L., Hatchell, C. A., & Yoffe, M. (2016). Internal medicine review core curriculum, 2017-2018. CO Springs, CO: MedStudy.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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