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RAYNAUD PHENOMENON

Rheumatology

RAYNAUD PHENOMENON

1. Primary Raynaud phenomenon (idiopathic; called Raynaud disease) usually begins in young women within a few years following menarche and is not A/W any rheumatologic disease.

2. Secondary Raynaud phenomenon is more severe; A/W RA, SLE, Sjogren's and mixed CT diseases (MCTD) & drugs (serotonin agonists, sympathetomimetics), smoking.

3. Defined as a sequential, tricolor change of the fingers and/or toes that occurs as a result of vasoconstriction with exposure to cold or emotional stress. Ulceration does not occur in primary disease.

4. Fingers and/or toes blanch or tum white (as a result of vasoconstriction).

5. When cyanosis due to decreased oxygenation occurs, the digits tum blue.

6. Finally, with vasodilation upon rewarming, the digits flush red (white => blue => red).


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REFERENCES

1. Wilkinson, I. (2017). Oxford handbook of clinical medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2. Hannaman, R. A., Bullock, L., Hatchell, C. A., & Yoffe, M. (2016). Internal medicine review core curriculum, 2017-2018. CO Springs, CO: MedStudy.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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