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ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME

Rheumatology

ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME

1. Primary or secondary (drugs, infection).

2. APS is characterized by the presence of 1 or more antiphospholipid antibodies (LAC, anticardiolipin, anti-beta2-glycoprotein) along with either vascular thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity.

3A. Vascular thrombosis:
- venous (deep venous thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism)
- arterial clots (stroke, myocardial infarction)

3B. Pregnancy morbidity presenting as:
- miscarriage of a normal fetus at >= 10-weeks gestation
- birth of 1 or more premature babies at < 34-weeks gestation because of eclampsia / preeclampsia / placental insufficiency
- multiple miscarriages (>=3) at <10-weeks gestation


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REFERENCES

1. Wilkinson, I. (2017). Oxford handbook of clinical medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2. Hannaman, R. A., Bullock, L., Hatchell, C. A., & Yoffe, M. (2016). Internal medicine review core curriculum, 2017-2018. CO Springs, CO: MedStudy.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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