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1. Systemic sclerosis was formerly known as scleroderma. Scleroderma is the term used to describe shiny, hard, thickened skin.

2. Morphea is when sclerosis is localized to a small cutaneous area.

3. When the sclerosis is widespread & involves internal organs, it is called "systemic sclerosis" (SSe).

3. SSe can be diffuse or limited in its expression depend­ing on the extent of skin involvement.

4. If skin is involved above the elbow and the knee (approaching or involving the torso), diffuse SSe is present.

5. If skin involvement starts at the fingertips and extends up to the elbow or from the toes to the knee), then limited SSe is present.

6. The face can be involved in both diffuse and limited SSe.

7. ANA is positive in 95% of those with SSe.


1. Wilkinson, I. (2017). Oxford handbook of clinical medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2. Hannaman, R. A., Bullock, L., Hatchell, C. A., & Yoffe, M. (2016). Internal medicine review core curriculum, 2017-2018. CO Springs, CO: MedStudy.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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