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RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS-EXTRA-ARTICULAR MANIFESTATIONS

Rheumatology

RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS-EXTRA-ARTICULAR MANIFESTATIONS

1. Cardiac - pericarditis and myocarditis, rheumatoid nodules on the valves, atherosclerosis.
2. Renal - renal-amyloid disease.
3. Lungs - pleural effusion, pulmonary fibrosis, intrapulmonary rheumatoid nodules, Caplan syndrome.
4. Vasculitis - PAN, nail-fold infarcts, splinter haemorrhages, necrosis with ulceration over the malleoli.
5. Nerves - mononeuritis multiplex, carpal/tarsal tunnel syndrome, cervical myelopathy.
6. Eyes - scleritis, episcleritis, sicca syndrome.
7. Skin - rheumatoid nodules over extensor surfaces.
8. Anaemia of chornic disease, Felty's syndrome.


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REFERENCES

1. Wilkinson, I. (2017). Oxford handbook of clinical medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2. Hannaman, R. A., Bullock, L., Hatchell, C. A., & Yoffe, M. (2016). Internal medicine review core curriculum, 2017-2018. CO Springs, CO: MedStudy.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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