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1. Host factors (especially genetic susceptibility): atopy is the strongest identifiable predisposing factor for developing lgE-mediated asthma.

2. Environmental factors: exposure to certain environmental agents at critical points in immune development.

3. Triggers are environmental factors that may be the cause of asthma or exacerbate symptoms when the airways are hypersensitive. Triggers can be broadly categorized into 6 areas: allergens, irritants, chemicals, respiratory infections, physical stress, and emotional stress.

4. Other environmental agents are pollution, tobacco smoke, and airborne agents prevalent in certain occupations.


1. Wilkinson, I. (2017). Oxford handbook of clinical medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2. Hannaman, R. A., Bullock, L., Hatchell, C. A., & Yoffe, M. (2016). Internal medicine review core curriculum, 2017-2018. CO Springs, CO: MedStudy.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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