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GENERAL CAUSES OF DYSPNOEA

Respiratory

GENERAL CAUSES OF DYSPNOEA

1. Parenchymal pathology - pneumonia, heart failure, etc.
2. Airways pathology - asthma, COPD, bronchiectasis, etc.
3. Pulmonary vascular pathology - PE.
4. Chest wall pathology - rib fractures, pneumothorax, neuromuscular disease.


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REFERENCES

1. Wilkinson, I. (2017). Oxford handbook of clinical medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2. Hannaman, R. A., Bullock, L., Hatchell, C. A., & Yoffe, M. (2016). Internal medicine review core curriculum, 2017-2018. CO Springs, CO: MedStudy.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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