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COPD

Respiratory

COPD

1. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by dyspnea, cough, and sputum production with evidence of irreversible airflow obstruction (FEV/FVC < 0.70) without another cause.

2. COPD results from chronic exposure to an inflammatory stimulus; e.g., cigarette smoke, pollution, dust.

3. The lungs (and airways) respond with inflammation and scarring.


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REFERENCES

1. Wilkinson, I. (2017). Oxford handbook of clinical medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2. Hannaman, R. A., Bullock, L., Hatchell, C. A., & Yoffe, M. (2016). Internal medicine review core curriculum, 2017-2018. CO Springs, CO: MedStudy.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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