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1. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) may improve the ability to voluntarily move the affected limb and/or use the affected limb in everyday activities (Pomeroy et al., 2006). Particularly useful for UL.

2. The available evidence suggests there might be a small effect on some aspects of function in favor to no treatment.

3. Electromyographic biofeedback (EMG-BF) makes patient aware of muscle activity or lack of it by using external representation (auditory or visual cues) of internal activity as a way to assist in the modification of voluntary control.

4. In addition to trying to modify autonomic function, EMG-BF also attempts to modify pain and motor disturbances by using volitional control and auditory, visual, and sensory clues.

5. Electrodes are placed over agonists/antagonists for facilitation/inhibition.

6. Accurate sensory information reaches brain through systems unaffected by brain → via visual and auditory for proprioception.

7. There is insufficient evidence to support or refute its use in stroke rehabilitation (Woodford & Price, 2007).


1. Wilkinson, I. (2017). Oxford handbook of clinical medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2. Hannaman, R. A., Bullock, L., Hatchell, C. A., & Yoffe, M. (2016). Internal medicine review core curriculum, 2017-2018. CO Springs, CO: MedStudy.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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