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1. Organic etiology: catecholamine depletion through lesion-induced damage to the frontal noradrenergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic projections (Heilman et al., 2012).

2. Reactive etiology: grief response to deficits, disability, incontinence, etc.

3. Prevalence of depression in stroke patients is 40% (25%-79%); occur in similar proportion in caregivers (Flick, 1999).

4. Most prevalent 6 months to 2 years.

5. Higher risk for major depression in left frontal lesions (relationship still controversial).

6. Risk factors: prior psychiatric history, severe deficits & ADL impairments, female gender, non-fluent aphasia, cognitive impairment, lack of social supports.

7. Persistent depression correlates with delayed recovery and poorer outcome.


1. Wilkinson, I. (2017). Oxford handbook of clinical medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2. Hannaman, R. A., Bullock, L., Hatchell, C. A., & Yoffe, M. (2016). Internal medicine review core curriculum, 2017-2018. CO Springs, CO: MedStudy.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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