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1. Facilitates GABA's effect on GABA A receptors throughout the neuroaxis resulting in membrane hyperpolarization & pre-synaptic inhibition.

2. Demonstrated efficacy in SCI and MS spasticity.

3. Adverse effects: sedation, memory impairment, decreased REM sleep.

4. Not suitable in TBI patients due to adverse effects on memory & attention.

5. Can have very long half-life due to active metabolites, may cause withdrawal symptoms if not tapered.

6. Overdose treated with Flumazenil.


1. Wilkinson, I. (2017). Oxford handbook of clinical medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2. Hannaman, R. A., Bullock, L., Hatchell, C. A., & Yoffe, M. (2016). Internal medicine review core curriculum, 2017-2018. CO Springs, CO: MedStudy.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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