Radiology Guides Anatomy Physio & Path Medicine Physics Contact



1. Upper Motor Neuron Syndrome: motor behaviors produced by lesions proximal to the alpha motor neuron (spinal cord, brain), resulting in the loss of descending inhibition and hypersensitivity of the reflex arc in the spinal cord.

2. UMNS is characterized by a series of positive (spasticity), exaggerated phasic (tendon jerks), and tonic (spastic) stretch reflexes, released flexor reflexes in the lower extremities, and loss of movement dexterity.

3. Muscle tone: the resistance of muscle to passive stretch.

4. Spasticity: abnormal, velocity-dependent resistance to passive movement of affected muscles at rest.

5. Dystonia: movement disorder characterized by muscle contraction resulting in twisting, turning & posturing.

6. Spastic dystonia: coexistance of spasticity & dystonia within the same muscle group.

7. Myoclonus: sudden jerky movements, less rythmic & less predictable than a tremor, that may be singular or repeated.


1. Wilkinson, I. (2017). Oxford handbook of clinical medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2. Hannaman, R. A., Bullock, L., Hatchell, C. A., & Yoffe, M. (2016). Internal medicine review core curriculum, 2017-2018. CO Springs, CO: MedStudy.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

+ Home