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1. Uncontrolled seizures can cause placental abruption and early labor and premature delivery.

2. When the risk of teratogenicity is compared to the problems that seizures cause during pregnancy, the risks of uncontrolled seizures is greater!

3. There is no "safe" AED, but valproate is more likely to cause neural tube defects than other commonly used drug.

4. The teratogenic risk of AEDs is decreased by folic acid, and thus, all women of child-bearing age on anti-epileptic drugs should take 1-2 mg of folate daily.


1. Wilkinson, I. (2017). Oxford handbook of clinical medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2. Hannaman, R. A., Bullock, L., Hatchell, C. A., & Yoffe, M. (2016). Internal medicine review core curriculum, 2017-2018. CO Springs, CO: MedStudy.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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