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1. Seizures - paroxysmal electrical discharges of the brain that cause loss of consciousness; alteration of perception or impairment of psychic function; convulsive movements; disturbance of sensation; or some combination thereof.

2. Seizures - primary vs secondary.

3. Seizures - focal vs. general
• Focal (or partial) seizures involve 1 side of the brain. These are noted for motor activity on 1 side of the body (usually) and no impairment of consciousness.
• Generalized seizures involve both hemispheres of the brain and result in diminished consciousness. Any motor activity generally involves both sides of the body (but not necessarily).

4. Epilepsy - condition of recurrent, unprovoked seizures.

5. Status spilepticus - prolonged or repetitive convulsive seizures that can be life-threatening.


1. Wilkinson, I. (2017). Oxford handbook of clinical medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2. Hannaman, R. A., Bullock, L., Hatchell, C. A., & Yoffe, M. (2016). Internal medicine review core curriculum, 2017-2018. CO Springs, CO: MedStudy.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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