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PARKINSONS & PARKINSONISM-PRESENTATION

Neurology

PARKINSONS & PARKINSONISM-PRESENTATION

Signs and symptoms of parkinsonism have 4 major characteristics (4Rs):

1. Resting tremor: 4-6Hz. Usually the first symptom noticed.

2. Rigidity and flexed posture. Cog-wheeling due to rigidity & tremor.

3. Retarded movement (bradykinesia and hypokinesia). Decreased amplitude of repetetive voluntary movements.
- Micrographia (progressive reduction in amplitude of writing), bradykinesia (difficulty initiating movement), masked facies.

4. Loss of postural Reflexes. Causes festinating gait - the patient walks progressively faster to remain under the forward center of gravity caused by truncal flexion.


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REFERENCES

1. Wilkinson, I. (2017). Oxford handbook of clinical medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2. Hannaman, R. A., Bullock, L., Hatchell, C. A., & Yoffe, M. (2016). Internal medicine review core curriculum, 2017-2018. CO Springs, CO: MedStudy.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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