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1. Inflammatory myopathies - caused by chronic muscle inflammation. Causes: dermatomyositis, polymyositis, IBD.

2. Endocrine myopathy - proximal muscle weakness of varying degrees may be seen in patients with hyperthyroidism, acromegaly, severe vitamin D deficiency, and conditions of steroid excess.

3. Metabolic myopathy - consider in patients with muscle fatigue, pain, cramping, contractures and myoglobinuria exacerbated by exercise. Caused by disorders of carbohydrate, lipid metabolism or mtochondrial function.

4. Muscular dystrophy - genetic abnormalities. Duchenne muscular dystrophy: X-linked disorder that causes progressive muscle weakness, starting at 2yrs, and progressing to death as a young adult. Myotonic dystrophy consists of 2 types of inherited, adult-onset, neuromuscular disorders with systemic effects.

5. AlDS-related myopathy is uncommon and typically thought to be due to zidovudine (ZDV, AZT).


1. Wilkinson, I. (2017). Oxford handbook of clinical medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2. Hannaman, R. A., Bullock, L., Hatchell, C. A., & Yoffe, M. (2016). Internal medicine review core curriculum, 2017-2018. CO Springs, CO: MedStudy.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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