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1. Migraines are a common, largely familial disorder characterized by periodic, often unilateral, pulsatile (throbbing) headaches that begin in childhood - early adult life and diminish in frequency as patients get older.

2. Migraines are more common in females.

3. ~60% are unilateral, last 4-72hrs, considered episodic if < 15 episodes/mth & chronic if > 15 episodes/mth for 3 months.

4. Triggers include emotional stress, certain foods (e.g., chocolate, aged cheese), alcohol, menstruation, exposure to glare or other strong sensory stimuli (including perfumes), and rapid changes in barometric pressure.

5. In women, they often occur in the premenstrual period and can be worsened by oral contraceptives.


1. Wilkinson, I. (2017). Oxford handbook of clinical medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2. Hannaman, R. A., Bullock, L., Hatchell, C. A., & Yoffe, M. (2016). Internal medicine review core curriculum, 2017-2018. CO Springs, CO: MedStudy.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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