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1. Dysphagia (difficulty swallowing) has an overall prevalence of 25% - 65% in stroke patients (Gordon et al., 1987): 67% of brainstem strokes; 28% of all left hemispheric strokes; 21% of all right hemispheric strokes.

2. More common in bilateral hemisphere lesions than in unilateral hemisphere lesions.

3. More common in large-vessel than in small-vessel strokes.

4. Delayed pharyngeal swallow is the most common cause (Veis & Logemann, 1985).


1. Wilkinson, I. (2017). Oxford handbook of clinical medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2. Hannaman, R. A., Bullock, L., Hatchell, C. A., & Yoffe, M. (2016). Internal medicine review core curriculum, 2017-2018. CO Springs, CO: MedStudy.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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