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Dementia is diagnosed when abnormalities exist in 2 or more of the following 5 domains, is progressive and interferes with ADLs:

1) Memory = acquiring and/or remembering new information: Do they ask repetitive questions, lose items, or get lost?

2) Executive function = reasoning and performing complex tasks: Do they understand appropriate danger? Can they perform ADLs?

3) Perception = assessing visuospatial orientation: Do they recognize faces and objects? Can they dress?

4) Language = comprehension and speaking appropriate language: Do they have problems recalling common words without hesitations?

5) Behavior = behaving normally and appropriately: Is there undue agitation, apathy, loss of empathy, compulsive behavior?


1. Wilkinson, I. (2017). Oxford handbook of clinical medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2. Hannaman, R. A., Bullock, L., Hatchell, C. A., & Yoffe, M. (2016). Internal medicine review core curriculum, 2017-2018. CO Springs, CO: MedStudy.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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