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1. Crush injuries (compartment syndromes), coma, or traumatic immobilisation
2. Prolonged surgeries
3. Strenuous exercise in extreme heat
4. Generalised seizures
5. Heat stroke
6. Severe volume contraction
7. Drugs: cocaine, amphetamines, statins, colchicines, anesthetics causing malignant hyperthermia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome
8. Infections: usually viral, especially influenza A and B
9. Endocrinopathies: DKA, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and pheo
10. Electrolyte abnormalities: severe hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia (in alcoholics during re-feeding syndrome)


1. Wilkinson, I. (2017). Oxford handbook of clinical medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2. Hannaman, R. A., Bullock, L., Hatchell, C. A., & Yoffe, M. (2016). Internal medicine review core curriculum, 2017-2018. CO Springs, CO: MedStudy.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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