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RENAL STONES-CALCIUM STONES CAUSES

Nephrology

RENAL STONES-CALCIUM STONES CAUSES

1. Calcium stone causes: hypercalciuria, uric acid, hypocitraturia, hyperoxaluria, and medullary sponge disease.

2. Hyercalciuria causes: hypervitaminosis D, distal (Type 1) RTA, sarcoidosis, and hyperparathyroidism.

3. Acidosis causes hypocitraturia and also leaches calcium from the bones, resulting in hypercalciuria.

4. Calcium phosphate stones:  primary hyperparathyroidism, acetazolamide, and distal (Type 1) RTA.

5. Calcium oxalate stones: high urinary oxalate, increased intake of Vit C, steatorrhoea.


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REFERENCES

1. Wilkinson, I. (2017). Oxford handbook of clinical medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2. Hannaman, R. A., Bullock, L., Hatchell, C. A., & Yoffe, M. (2016). Internal medicine review core curriculum, 2017-2018. CO Springs, CO: MedStudy.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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