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POTASSIUM-HYPOKALEMIA CAUSES

Nephrology

POTASSIUM-HYPOKALEMIA CAUSES

1. Increased renin (appropriate or inappropriate): volume depletion, renovascular disease, renin-secreting renal tumors

2. Increased aldosterone (inappropriate release or hormones with aldosterone-like effects): bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, Conn syndrome, Cushing sndrome.

3. Cellular shifts: metabolic alkalosis (K + /H + exchange), insulin

4. Renal loss: type 1 & 2 RTA

5. Drugs: Thiazide & loop diuretics, Cisplatin & penicillins

6. Genetic: 3 genetic syndromes are associated with hypokalemia: Liddle's, Bartter's, and Gitelman's


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REFERENCES

1. Wilkinson, I. (2017). Oxford handbook of clinical medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2. Hannaman, R. A., Bullock, L., Hatchell, C. A., & Yoffe, M. (2016). Internal medicine review core curriculum, 2017-2018. CO Springs, CO: MedStudy.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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