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1. All NOACs are ‘non-inferior’ to warfarin in the primary efficacy endpoint of stroke and systemic embolism.

2. Apixaban and dabigatran 150 mg are superior to warfarin, although the numbers needed to treat to show this benefit are large.

3. All NOACs are ‘non-inferior’ to warfarin for the primary safety endpoint of major bleeding. ICH is significantly less frequent with all NOACs.

4. Apixaban and dabigatran 110 mg are superior to warfarin.


1. Wilkinson, I. (2017). Oxford handbook of clinical medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2. Hannaman, R. A., Bullock, L., Hatchell, C. A., & Yoffe, M. (2016). Internal medicine review core curriculum, 2017-2018. CO Springs, CO: MedStudy.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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