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1. Transfer disorders (oropharyngeal): This is due to neurologic deficits, which leads to oropharyngeal muscle dysfunction and results in difficulty transfer­ring food from the mouth to the esophagus. Symptoms include coughing, gagging, and nasal regurgitating immediately upon swallowing. Common causes include stroke, Parkinson disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

2. Anatomic or structural disorders: physical obstruction of the esophageal lumen.

3. Motility disorders: trouble with transporting food from the upper esophagus to the stomach. This can be a failure of effective peristalsis and/or failure of LES relaxation. These disorders have endogenous or exogenous causes.


1. Wilkinson, I. (2017). Oxford handbook of clinical medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2. Hannaman, R. A., Bullock, L., Hatchell, C. A., & Yoffe, M. (2016). Internal medicine review core curriculum, 2017-2018. CO Springs, CO: MedStudy.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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