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1. Treat both pheos and paragangliomas with laparoscopic surgery.

2. Partial adrenalecto­mies are advocated in these patients, thereby decreasing the morbidity associated with medical adrenal hormonal therapy.

3. Phenoxybenzamine is preferred for 2 weeks prior to surgery; and 3 days before surgery, add a beta-blocker.

4. Remember never to use the beta-blocker first, because it leads to unopposed alpha stimulation and potential for hypertensive crisis.


1. Wilkinson, I. (2017). Oxford handbook of clinical medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2. Hannaman, R. A., Bullock, L., Hatchell, C. A., & Yoffe, M. (2016). Internal medicine review core curriculum, 2017-2018. CO Springs, CO: MedStudy.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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