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1. The T-score compares results with normal, young, healthy bone; a T-score of -1.0 means the BMD is 1 SD less than normal-about 10% low.

2. A T-score of -2.5 or lower is the definition of osteoporosis (about 25% below normal), whereas those between -1 and -2.5 suggest osteopenia.

3. The Z-score compares the BMD result to age & sex-matched controls and is now recommended for use in men & women < 50yrs.

4. The Z-score is not used for treatment but rather to see if there is accelerated osteoporosis, which would suggest secondary factors-such as drugs-might be involved.


1. Wilkinson, I. (2017). Oxford handbook of clinical medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2. Hannaman, R. A., Bullock, L., Hatchell, C. A., & Yoffe, M. (2016). Internal medicine review core curriculum, 2017-2018. CO Springs, CO: MedStudy.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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