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DIABETES MELLITUS-TYPE 2

Endocrinology

DIABETES MELLITUS-TYPE 2

1. Obesity increases insulin resistance, and 80% of patients with T2DM are obese. Pregnancy also increases resistance.

PATHOLOGY
2. Insulin resistance in muscle and fat tissues.

3. Gradual reduction in insulin secretion by the pancreas.

4. Unregulated hepatic gluconeogenesis and glucagon secretion.

5. Reduction in GIT incretins (glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide).

ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS
6. Associated conditions: HHNK, DKA, acanthosis nigricans (velvety, dark rash in flexural areas occurs in conditions associated with insulin resistance, such as PCOS, Cushing's, certain medications (niacin, corticosteroids), and acromegaly.


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REFERENCES

1. Wilkinson, I. (2017). Oxford handbook of clinical medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2. Hannaman, R. A., Bullock, L., Hatchell, C. A., & Yoffe, M. (2016). Internal medicine review core curriculum, 2017-2018. CO Springs, CO: MedStudy.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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