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DIABETES MELLITUS-COMPLICATION MONITORING

Endocrinology

DIABETES MELLITUS-COMPLICATION MONITORING

1. Patients need annual evaluations for microvascular complications.

2. Do a urine spot albumin:creatinine as a test for nephropathy (normal < 30 mg/g). Microalbuminuria is 30-300 mg/g.

3. Check creatinine and estimate GFR.

4. Ophthalmologist for a slit lamp exam/fundus photography and rapidly refer macular edema or proliferative retinopathy.

5. Inspect the feet visually and perform a sensory evaluation using the 10 gm monofilament, pinprick, temperature, and vibration.

6. Loss of two-point discrimination & vibratory sense predicts foot ulcers.


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REFERENCES

1. Wilkinson, I. (2017). Oxford handbook of clinical medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2. Hannaman, R. A., Bullock, L., Hatchell, C. A., & Yoffe, M. (2016). Internal medicine review core curriculum, 2017-2018. CO Springs, CO: MedStudy.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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