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CALCIUM-HYPERCALCEMIA CAUSES

Endocrinology

CALCIUM-HYPERCALCEMIA CAUSES

1. Primary/secondary/tertiary hyperparathyroidism.

2. Drugs - Vit D excess, Vit A excess, thiazide diuretic (decreases calcium excretion), lithium (increases PTH threshold, requiring Ca 2+ to be higher to shut off PTH secretion).

3. Malignancy
- Myeloma: produces osteoclast activating factors.
- Some solid tumors: secrete PTH-related protein (different from PTH, which is suppressed by raised serum calcium).
- Metastasis: produce local osteoclast activating factors.

4. Sarcoidosis, TB, histoplasmosis, leprosy - through Vit D production by macrophages.

5. Immobility in the setting of hyperthyroidism, Paget's disease, adolescence.

6. Multi-trauma.

7. Genetic - FHH.


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REFERENCES

1. Wilkinson, I. (2017). Oxford handbook of clinical medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2. Hannaman, R. A., Bullock, L., Hatchell, C. A., & Yoffe, M. (2016). Internal medicine review core curriculum, 2017-2018. CO Springs, CO: MedStudy.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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