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CAUSES OF PITTING B/L LL OEDEMA

Cardiology

CAUSES OF PITTING B/L LL OEDEMA

1. Cardiac - CCF.
2. Renal - nephrotic syndrome causing hypoalbuminaemia.
3. Hepatic - cirrhosis causing hypoalbuminaemia.
4. GIT - malabsorption, starvation, protein-losing enteropathy causing hypoalbuminaemia.
5. Drugs - calcium channel blockers.
6. Venous - varicose veins.
7. Beri-beri.
8. Cyclical oedema.
9. B/L joint trauma/surgery.


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REFERENCES

1. Wilkinson, I. (2017). Oxford handbook of clinical medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2. Hannaman, R. A., Bullock, L., Hatchell, C. A., & Yoffe, M. (2016). Internal medicine review core curriculum, 2017-2018. CO Springs, CO: MedStudy.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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