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SURFACE MARKING-VALVES

Anatomy-Thorax

SURFACE MARKING-VALVES

All valves are aligned behind the sternal edge, making a line that is nearly vertical. The surface marking does not correspond with the site of auscultation:
1. Apex - left 5th intercostal space, 1cm medial to midclavicular line.
2. Tricuspid area - 5th intercostal space, left sternal edge.
3. Pulmonary area - 2nd intercostal space, left sternal edge.
4. Aortic area - 2nd intercostal space, right sternal edge.


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REFERENCES

1. Mcminn. (2003). Last's Anatomy. Elsevier Australia. ISBN:0729537528. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
2. Netter, F. H. (2019). Atlas of human anatomy. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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