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RESPIRATION

Anatomy-Thorax

RESPIRATION

1. AP, transverse, vertical diameters increase during inspiration. Controlled by thoracic + diaphragmatic movement.

AP DIAMETER
2. Sternum moves forward due to movement at the manubrosternal joint. Part of 'pump-handle' movement.
3. The typical upper rib (1-7) is raised by 'pump-handle' movement with rotation at the neck + costotransverse joint.

TRANSVERSE DIAMETER
4. The typical lower ribs (7-10) are everted by 'bucket-handle' movement in deep inspiration, with movement along an axis that passes through the costochondral joint in front + rib head at the back.

VERTICAL DIAMETER
5. Due to diaphragmatic movement.


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REFERENCES

1. Mcminn. (2003). Last's Anatomy. Elsevier Australia. ISBN:0729537528. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
2. Netter, F. H. (2019). Atlas of human anatomy. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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