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THORACIC VERTEBRA

Anatomy-Spine

THORACIC VERTEBRA

1. Normally kyphotic. Costal elements ossify separately as ribs.
2. The concave facets on the upper TP look downwards, whilst the flat facets on the lower TP looks upwards.
3. The S/P slope downwards from T1-7, from T7-12 become progressively more horizontal.
4. The prominent S/P of the vertebra prominence may be that of C7 or T1.
5. The vertebral bodies become larger from above downwards with the middle 4 showing slight asymmetry with a left-sided excavation produced by the descending aorta.


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REFERENCES

1. Mcminn. (2003). Last's Anatomy. Elsevier Australia. ISBN:0729537528. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
2. Netter, F. H. (2019). Atlas of human anatomy. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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