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1. The vertebrae ossify in 3 parts - the centrum and the right and left neural arches.
2. In the thoracic region the COSTAL ELEMENTS develop separately as ribs.
3. In the rest of the vertebral column the COSTAL ELEMENTS become incorporated into the neural arch.
4. The centrum is not the same as the anatomical body of the vertebra.
5. The neurocentral junction lies anterior to the costal facets in the body of the vertebra.


1. Mcminn. (2003). Last's Anatomy. Elsevier Australia. ISBN:0729537528. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
2. Netter, F. H. (2019). Atlas of human anatomy. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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