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1. Lacks a centrum.
2. The vertebral arch is modified to form thick lateral masses + short anterior arch + long posterior arch.
3. Upper surface of the articular facet - kidney shaped + concave to articulate with occipital condyle.
4. Lower surface of the articular facet - round + flat to articulate with the atlanto-axial joint.
5. The articular facets are in line with uncovertebral joints of C3-7.
6. C1 + C2 nerves send their anterior rami behind the joints.


1. Mcminn. (2003). Last's Anatomy. Elsevier Australia. ISBN:0729537528. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
2. Netter, F. H. (2019). Atlas of human anatomy. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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