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COSTAL ELEMENTS

Anatomy-Spine

COSTAL ELEMENTS

1. In the cervical vertebra the costal elements form the foramen transversarium. May also form cervical ribs.
2. In the thoracic vertebrae the costal elements form the ribs.
3. In the lumbar vertebrae the costal elements are vestigial and fuse with the body of the vertebrae to form transverse processes.


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REFERENCES

1. Mcminn. (2003). Last's Anatomy. Elsevier Australia. ISBN:0729537528. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
2. Netter, F. H. (2019). Atlas of human anatomy. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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