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CORTICOSPINAL TRACT-DEFICITS (UMN SIGNS)

Anatomy-Spine

CORTICOSPINAL TRACT-DEFICITS (UMN SIGNS)

1. Pronator drift - first to occur, before weakness or reflex changes.
2. Acute lesion - hemiplegia/hemiparesis, paraplegia/paraparesis (weakness of LL).
3. Partial, progressive lesion - extensor posturing => {UL flexors > UL extensors} + {LL extensors > LL flexors}.
4. Hypertonia - initially flaccid paralysis + areflexia, hypertonia occurs classically sets in after period of spinal shock (8-12 weeks).
5. Hyper-reflexia.
6. Extensor plantar response.
7. Hoffman's sign - UL sign.
8. Loss of abdominal reflexes on the affected side.
9. No muscle wasting.


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REFERENCES

1. Mcminn. (2003). Last's Anatomy. Elsevier Australia. ISBN:0729537528. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
2. Netter, F. H. (2019). Atlas of human anatomy. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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