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1. Represents the multi-jointed tail of other vertebrates.
2. Attached to tha apex of the sacrum via the sacrococcygeal joint.
3. This is reinforced by ligaments - deep dorsal sacrococcygeal, ventral sacrococcygeal, lateral sacrococcygeal ligaments.
4. The lateral sacrococcygeal ligament joins the 1st TP of coccyx to lateral angle of sacrum. May be ossified.
5. The tip gives rise to the anococcygeal raphe, superficial anal sphincter.
6. The lateral borders give rise to coccygeus muscle, sacrospinous ligament, iliococcygeus, pubococcygeus.


1. Mcminn. (2003). Last's Anatomy. Elsevier Australia. ISBN:0729537528. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
2. Netter, F. H. (2019). Atlas of human anatomy. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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