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CIRCLE OF WILLIS-NORMAL VARIANTS

Anatomy-Neuroanatomy

CIRCLE OF WILLIS-NORMAL VARIANTS

1. ICA - persistent embryonic cervical ICA branches to vertebrobasilar system, persistent trigeminal a., persistent hypoglossal a.

2. ACA - hypoplastic A1 segments, azygous ACA, duplicated/fenestrated segments.

3. MCA - rare; can be fenestration, duplication.

4. PCOM - hypoplastic PCOM.

5. PCA - fetal PCA (arises from ICA instead of vertebrobasilar system).


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REFERENCES

1. Mcminn. (2003). Last's Anatomy. Elsevier Australia. ISBN:0729537528. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
2. Netter, F. H. (2019). Atlas of human anatomy. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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