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1. Superior pole - external acoustic meatus, temporomandibular joint.

2. Lower pole - behind the angle of the mandible, anterior to the sternocleidomastoid and posterior belly of the digastric.

3. Lateral surface - subcutaneous tissue.

4. Anterior surface - clasps the ramus of the mandible with the masseter on its outer surface and medial pterygoid on its inner surface inferiorly (separated by the stylomandibular ligament).

5. Anterior border - formed by the lateral edge of the anterior surface where it meets the masseter. The parotid duct and 5 facial nerve branches emerge from this border. From the deeper part, the superficial temporal and maxillary arteries leave the gland.

6. Deep surface - indented by the mastoid process and its attached muscles (sternocleidomastoid and posterior belly of the digastric), styloid process and its attached muscles (stylohyoid, styloglossus, stylopharyngeus) and two ligaments (stylomandibular, stylohyoid).
- The external carotid artery enters the gland through this surface.
- The styloid process separates the gland from the IJV + ICA.
- The temporozygomatic + cervicofacial branches of the facial n. enter the gland b/w the mastoid + styloid processes.


1. Mcminn. (2003). Last's Anatomy. Elsevier Australia. ISBN:0729537528. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
2. Netter, F. H. (2019). Atlas of human anatomy. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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