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1. Intermembranous ossification - osteoblasts lay down bone in fibrous tissue, there is no cartilagenous precursor. Occurs in the skull, face, clavicle.

2. Endochondral ossification - a pre-existing hyaline cartilage model of bone is gradually destroyed (not converted) & replaced by bone. Most long bones are formed this way.

3. The site where bone first forms is the primary centre of ossification.

4. In long bone this occurs in the centre (diaphyses) at 8 wks of intrauterine life, the ends (epiphyses) usually ossify after birth - secondary centres of ossification.

5. Epiphyseal lines - a plate of epiphyseal cartilage remaining between an epiphysis & diaphysis.


1. Mcminn. (2003). Last's Anatomy. Elsevier Australia. ISBN:0729537528. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
2. Netter, F. H. (2019). Atlas of human anatomy. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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