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1. Hair: the keratin of the skin surface is soft keratin, but hair and nails are a hard type of keratin.

2. There is no new development of hair follicles after birth.

3. Most follicles have an arrector pili muscle attached to the connective tissue of the base of the follicle and passing obliquely to the upper part of the dermis.

4. Composed of smooth muscle with a sympathetic innervation, it is on the same side of the follicle as the sebaceous gland, so that when contracting to make the hair 'stand on end', it may also squeeze the gland.

5. Hair on the scalp has a growing phase of 2-3 years followed by a few months in a resting phase, during which time the hair becomes detached from the base of the follicle.


1. Mcminn. (2003). Last's Anatomy. Elsevier Australia. ISBN:0729537528. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
2. Netter, F. H. (2019). Atlas of human anatomy. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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