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1. Paired retroperitoneal organs that lie on the posterior abdominal wall at the level of the T12 to L3 vertebral bodies.
2. Each kidney located on either side of the vertebral column, largely under the cover of the costal margin.
3. The long axis of the kidney is parallel to the lateral border of the psoas muscle and lies on the quadratus lumborum muscle.
4. The kidneys lie at an oblique angle - the superior renal pole is more medial and anterior than the inferior pole.
5. Due to the right lobe of the liver, the right kidney usually lies slightly lower than the left kidney.
6. Hilum of the right kidney is just below the transpyloric plane, the left hilum is just above.
7. The kidney possesses a capsule and are surrounded by perinephric fat and renal fascia.


1. Mcminn. (2003). Last's Anatomy. Elsevier Australia. ISBN:0729537528. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
2. Netter, F. H. (2019). Atlas of human anatomy. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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