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1. L5: IVC formed by the union of b/l common iliac v. - each common iliac v. is formed by the union of the internal iliac v. (from pelvis) + external iliac v. (continuation of femoral v.) anterior to SI joint.

2. L2: right gonadal v. - accompany the gonadal a. The right enters the IVC below right renal v. On the left it joins the left renal v.

3. L2: bilateral renal v. - lie anterior to the renal a. + posterior to pancreas. Left is longer than right, drains left renal, supra-renal, gonadal, ascending lumbar, lumbar azygous v. Right only drains its own kidney.

4. L1-5: lumbar v. - accompany lumbar a. + drain lateral + psterior abdominal wall. Anastamoses with epigastric (anteriorly) + vertebral venous plexus (posteriorly).

5. L1: right supra-renal v.

6. T8: hepatic v. Blood from GIT, pancreas, spleen pass through the portal v. and then to IVC via hepatic v. 3 main veins - right, central, left enter the IVC as it lies in the groove at the back of the liver.

7. T8: inferior phrenic v. - accompany the b/l inferior phrenic a. and drains the lower surface of diaphragm.


1. Mcminn. (2003). Last's Anatomy. Elsevier Australia. ISBN:0729537528. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
2. Netter, F. H. (2019). Atlas of human anatomy. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.
3. Image: no reference available.

Ⓒ A. Manickam 2018

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